X-ray tube 2



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English: Early Crookes x-ray tube from the Museum of Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen in Würzburg, Germany. These first generation 'cold cathode' x-ray tubes were used from the 1890s until about 1920. The electrode on the right was the concave cathode or negative electrode, which focused a beam of electrons on the angled platinum anode in the center of the bulb. When the electrons struck this they generated x-rays, which passed through the glass wall of the tube at top. The electrode to the left of the anode was called the auxiliary anode.
The curved tube attached just above the cathode is an 'osmotic softener' device to adjust the pressure in the tube. Crookes tubes required some gas in them to operate, but as time passed the gas was absorbed by the walls of the tube and the pressure dropped, requiring higher voltage across the tube which generated 'harder' x-rays, until eventually the tube stopped working. The softener consists of a tiny palladium tube, closed on the outer end, which projects through the glass wall of the tube. It is protected by a glass cap. When the pressure got too low, the cap was removed and a flame was played over the palladium tube. Hydrogen ions from the flame diffuse through the palladium into the tube, raising the pressure. For more information see Frederick F. Strong, (1908) High Frequency Currents, Rebman Co., New York, p.192-200
Date May 8th 2008 (see EXIF)
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EXIF data:
File name x-ray_tube_2.jpg
Size, Mbytes 2.13419921875
Mime type image/jpeg
Camera manufacturer NIKON CORPORATION
Camera model NIKON D80
Orientation of image 1
Image resolution in width direction 300
Image resolution in height direction 300
Unit of X and Y resolution 2
Exposure time 10/600 sec (0.016666666666667)
F number f / 3.5
ISO speed rating 200
Compressed bits per pixel 4
Exif version 0221
Lens focal length 32 mm
Date and time original image was generated 2008:05:08 11:14:24
Date and time image was made digital data 2008:05:08 11:14:24
Meaning of each component 
Exposure bias 0
Maximum lens aperture 3.1
Metering mode 5
User comments ASCII
Supported Flashpix version 0100
Color space information 1
Exif image width 2842
Exif image length 2004
InteroperabilityOffset 852
Sensing method 2
Scene type 
CFA pattern 
Digital zoom ratio 1
Focal length in 35 mm film 48 mm
Interoperability index R98
Interoperability version 0100
Software used Adobe Photoshop CS3 Windows

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