Please login in order to download photos in full size
Please note to download premium images you also need to join as a free member..
You can also save the photos without the registration - but only in small and average sizes, and some of them will have the site's watermark. Please simply click your right mouse button and save the image.
Please login in order to like photos
If you are not registered, please register for free:
Sorry, non-members can download up to 100 full-size photos per month.
It looks like you have used up your limit.
Join as a member today for FREE! - and download the images without limitations:
You can also save the images without the membership - but only in small and average sizes, and some of them may have the site's watermark. Please simply click your right mouse button and save the image.
English: Temperature range of the liquid phase of the elements of galinstan - gallium, indium and tin. The error and uncertainty in the boiling point temperatures of the elements is quantified but the uncertainty in the boiling point or dissociation temperature of galinstan is unquantified.
|Date||9 November 2010|
In the scientific publication "Gallium Safety in the Laboratory", L. C. Cadwallader states that "Galinstan ... boils at about 2300°C". The Material Safety Data Sheet published by Geratherm simply states that the boiling point of Galinstan is greater than 1300°C. The author of this diagram (Peter Dow) wonders if rather than boil from liquid galinstan into "gaseous galinstan", a dissociation of galinstan into its elements occurs at galinstan's boiling or dissociation temperature, namely gaseous gallium, gaseous indium and tin vapour which could condense into liquid tin at temperatures below the boiling point of tin? Or is there a stable temperature range for molecular gaseous galinstan above galinstan's boiling point and if so what is galinstan's dissociation temperature? Anyway, internet searches are not turning up much in the way of information about the boiling behaviour of galinstan so this diagram if nothing else can highlight the lack of published detail on this and if someone knows and wants to let the rest of us know, that would be kind. Thanks.
Boiling points of Gallium and Tin disagreements
For the first version of this diagram, I simply assumed the values for the boiling points of the elements which were given in the Wikipedia pages for the elements gallium, indium and tin would be about right.
There seems to be quite a wide variation in the values quoted in different books and websites. See the discussion pages for Gallium and Tin but we are talking hundreds of degrees of a difference. For example, one of my old text books gives different values there which correspond to the Chemical Elements website at first glance. On the other hand, another of my text books gives different values again.
These wide variations are not reflected in the tabulation of reference values on this wikipedia page - Boiling points of the elements (data page). I am discussing this here Talk:Boiling points of the elements (data page).
My web search found a very relevant scientific paper "The Vapor Pressure of Indium, Silver, Gallium, Copper, Tin, and Gold Between 0.1 and 3.0 Bar" by F. Geiger, C. A. Busse and R. I. Loehrke, published in "International Journal of Thermophysics, Vol. 8, No. 4, 1987" and this has inspired me to revise my diagram and to upload a second version.
Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported
All photos in average size can be saved by everyone without registration (by right-clicking) - and all photos can be downloaded in full-size and without the big watermark by members (by left-clicking) (registration and free membership required).
While the copyright and licensing information supplied for each photo is believed to be accurate, Free-Photos.biz does not provide any warranty regarding the copyright status or correctness of licensing terms. If you decide to reuse the images from Free-Photos.biz, you should verify the copyright status of each image just as you would when obtaining images from other sources.
The use of depictions of living or deceased persons may be restricted in some jurisdictions by laws regarding personality rights. Such images are exhibited at Free-Photos.biz as works of art that serve higher artistic interests.