X-ray tube 4



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English: Early Crookes x-ray tube from the Museum of Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen in Würzburg. The electrode at right is the cathode, which released electrons which hit the end of the anode, the angled copper rod in the center of the bulb, creating x-rays, which passed through rear wall of the tube. The anode was heated by the electron beam striking it, and the heat had to be dissipated or the anode could melt. The small round bulb to the lower left contained water for cooling the anode, and the anode is made of a hollow copper rod to conduct the heat efficiently to the water. The sausage shaped device attached just below the main bulb is an automatic 'softener', which controlled the vacuum in the tube. Crookes tubes required a small amount of air in them to function. With time, the air was absorbed by the walls of the tube, increasing the vacuum, until the tube stopped working. When that happened, a wire was attached to the softener, causing a current to pass through the black sleeve inside the softener, which released a small amount of gas into the tube, restoring the tube to function. These 'cold cathode' x-ray tubes were used until about 1920.
Date May 8th 2008 (see EXIF)
Source my own camera
Author me (Aida
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EXIF data:
File name x-ray_tube_4.jpg
Size, bytes 305059
Mime type image/jpeg
Image input equipment manufacturer NIKON CORPORATION
Image input equipment model NIKON D80
Orientation of image 1
Image resolution in width direction 3000000/10000
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Unit of X and Y resolution 2
Exposure time 10/1600
F number 33/10
Exposure program 3
ISO speed rating 800
Compressed bits per pixel 4/1
Exif version 0221
Lens focal length 380/10
Date and time original image was generated 2008:05:08 11:19:19
Date and time image was made digital data 2008:05:08 11:19:19
Meaning of each component 
Exposure bias 0/6
Maximum lens aperture 34/10
Metering mode 5
User comments ASCII
Supported Flashpix version 0100
Color space information 1
Exif image width 867
Exif image length 535
InteroperabilityOffset 852
Sensing method 2
Scene type 
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Digital zoom ratio 1/1
Focal length in 35 mm film 57
Gain control 1
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Interoperability index R98
Interoperability version 0100
Software used Adobe Photoshop CS3 Windows
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