X-ray tube 1



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Description Early Crookes x-ray tube from museum of Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen in Würzburg. The electrode on the lower left was the concave cathode, which focused a beam of electrons to a small (~1 mm) spot on the angled platinum anode in the center of the bulb, generating x-rays, which radiated through the forward wall of the tube toward the viewer. The electrode on the upper right was called the auxiliary anode. These early 'cold cathode' tubes were used from about 1900 to 1920. The curved glass projection attached to the neck of the tube next to the cathode was a chemical 'softening' device to control the pressure in the tube. Crookes tubes required some air in the tube to operate. But over time the residual gas was absorbed by the walls, lowering the pressure. This required higher voltage across the tube, generating 'harder' x-rays, until the tube stopped working entirely. The softener contains either potassium chlorate or manganese dioxide. To restore the tube, the softener tube was heated in a flame, which released oxygen from the chemical, raising the pressure.
Date May 8th 2008 (see EXIF)
Source my own camera
Author me
(Reusing this file)

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EXIF data:
File name x-ray_tube_1.jpg
Size, bytes 2618346
Mime type image/jpeg
Image input equipment manufacturer NIKON CORPORATION
Image input equipment model NIKON D80
Orientation of image 1
Image resolution in width direction 3000000/10000
Image resolution in height direction 3000000/10000
Unit of X and Y resolution 2
Exposure time 10/600
F number 45/10
ISO speed rating 400
Compressed bits per pixel 4/1
Exif version 0221
Lens focal length 320/10
Date and time original image was generated 2008:05:08 11:13:59
Date and time image was made digital data 2008:05:08 11:13:59
Meaning of each component 
Exposure bias 0/6
Maximum lens aperture 31/10
Metering mode 5
User comments ASCII
Supported Flashpix version 0100
Color space information 1
Exif image width 2477
Exif image length 2058
InteroperabilityOffset 852
Sensing method 2
Scene type 
CFA pattern 
Digital zoom ratio 1/1
Focal length in 35 mm film 48
Gain control 1
Interoperability index R98
Interoperability version 0100
Software used Adobe Photoshop CS3 Windows
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