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Original photograph by German photographer of Jemal Pasha, then the public works minister in the Ottoman Empire, at teh celebrations of the completion of al-Hindya dam on the Euphrates near al-Hilla, south of Baghdad. Jemal Pahsa is seen in his white jacket and his riding outfit, surrounded by the tribal leaders of the regions of south of Baghdad. The sophisticated western attire of Jemal Pasha sharply contrasted with the traditional costumes of the fierce-looking traditional local tribal leaders. Jemal Pasha was then to server as minister of the Navy, the governor of Syria, Lebanon, and Palestine, and led the military campaigns along the Suez Canal against the British and their allies. He was known to the Arabs by Jemal al-Saffah, Jemal the Butcher, for the number of nationalist Arab leaders executed by him (hanging) in both Beirut and Damascus. The two martyrs’ squares of Beirut and Damascus were named after his victims. After WWI, he briefly fought the British in Afghanistan. He was later gunned down by the Armenians in retaliation for the Armenian massacre perpetuated by the triumvirate of the young turks consisting of Jemal Pasha, Enver Pasha and Talaat Pasha.


Ottoman era.




German photographer.

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Public domain This work was first published in Iraq and is now in the public domain because its copyright protection has expired by virtue of the Law No. 3 of 1971 on Copyright, amended 2004 by Order No. 83, Amendment to the Copyright Law. The work meets one of the following criteria:
  • It is an anonymous work or pseudonymous work and 50 years have passed since the year of its publication
  • It is a work where the copyright holder is a legal entity or a work of applied art 50 years have passed since the year of its publication
  • It is a photographic or cinematic work that is not compositive (artistic in nature) first published before 1 January 1999
  • It is work published in Iraq before 1 January 1954, and the author died before 1 January 1979
  • It is another kind of work, and 50 years have passed since the year of death of the author (or last-surviving author)
  • It is one of "collections of official documents, such as texts of international laws, regulations and agreements, judicial judgements and various official documents."

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EXIF data:
File name jemalpasha.jpg
Size, bytes 147604
Mime type image/jpeg
Orientation of image 1
Image resolution in width direction 240/1
Image resolution in height direction 240/1
Unit of X and Y resolution 2
Exif version 0220
Color space information 1
Exif image width 800
Exif image length 571
InteroperabilityOffset 252
Interoperability index R98
Interoperability version 0100
Software used ACD Systems Digital Imaging
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